An aroma is a volatilised chemical compound that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction (the sense of smell) and usually pleasant or savory. (Wikipedia ).
Inhalation or bodily application (as by massage) of fragrant essential oils (as from flowers and fruits) for therapeutic purposes; broadly : the use of aroma to enhance a feeling of well-being. (Wikipedia )
Arteminisin (Artemisia Annua)
Artemisinin is the name of the active ingredient of Artemisia Annua and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It was discovered in 1972 by Tu Youyou, a Chinese scientist, who was awarded half of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine for her discovery. Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative (artemisinin-combination therapies, ACTs) are now standard treatment worldwide for P. falciparum malaria. Artemisinin is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua, sweet wormwood, a herb employed in Chinese traditional medicine. A precursor compound can be produced using genetically engineered yeast.
Chemically, artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone containing an unusual peroxide bridge. This peroxide is believed to be responsible for the drug's mechanism of action. Few other natural compounds with such a peroxide bridge are known.
Artemisinin and its endoperoxide derivatives have been used for the treatment of P. falciparum related infections but low bioavailability, poor pharmacokinetic properties and high cost of the drugs are a major drawback of their use. Use of the drug by itself as a monotherapy is explicitly discouraged by the World Health Organization, as there have been signs that malarial parasites are developing resistance to the drug. Therapies that combine artemisinin or its derivatives with some other antimalarial drug are the preferred treatment for malaria and are both effective and well tolerated in patients.
The drug is also increasingly being used in Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Artemisinin and derivatives have been studied in many in vitro and animal models and has shown promise. As of 2018 human clinical trials and other clinical research had been conducted in lung, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers, but the studies were too small to generalize from. (Wikipedia )
Cajuput oil is a volatile oil obtained by distillation from the leaves of the myrtaceous trees Melaleuca leucadendra, Melaleuca cajuputi, and probably other Melaleuca species. The trees yielding the oil are found throughout Maritime Southeast Asia and over the hotter parts of the Australian continent. The majority of the oil is produced on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The name “cajeput” is derived from its Indonesian name, “kayu putih” or "white wood".
The oil is prepared from leaves collected on a hot dry day, macerated in water, and distilled after fermenting for a night. This oil is extremely pungent, and has the odor of a mixture of turpentine and camphor. It consists mainly of cineol (see terpenes), from which cajuputene, having a hyacinth-like odor, can be obtained by distillation with phosphorus pentoxide. The drug is a typical volatile oil, and is used internally in doses of 2 to 3 minims, for the same purposes as, say, clove oil. It is frequently employed externally as a counterirritant. It is an ingredient in some liniments for sore muscles such as Tiger Balm and Indonesian traditional medicine Minyak Telon.
It is also used as an ingredient in inhalants/decongestants and topical pain/inflammation remedies such as Olbas Oil. (Wikipedia )
p-Menthane-3,8-diol, also known as para-menthane-3,8-diol, PMD, or menthoglycol, is an organic compound classified as a diol and a terpinoid. It is colorless. Its name reflects the hydrocarbon backbone, which is that of p-menthane.
p-Menthane-3,8-diol is the active ingredient in some insect repellents. Its odor is similar to menthol and has a cooling feel. There are eight possible isomers of PMD, and the exact composition is rarely specified and is commonly assumed to be a complex mixture.
PMD is found in small quantities in the essential oil from the leaves of Corymbia citriodora, formerly known as Eucalyptus citriodora. This tree is native to Australia, but is now cultivated in many warm places around the world.
C. citriodora oil, when refined to increase its PMD content for use in insect repellents, is known in the United States as oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or by the tradenames Citrosynthol , Citrepel and Citriodiol. (Wikipedia )
Citronellal or rhodinal or 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-al (C10H18O) is a monoterpenoid, the main component in the mixture of terpenoid chemical compounds that give citronella oil its distinctive lemon scent.
Citronellal is a major isolate in distilled oils from the plants Cymbopogon, lemon-scented gum, and lemon-scented teatree. The (–)-(S)-enantiomer of citronellal makes up to 80% of the leaf oil from kaffir lime leaves and is the compound responsible for its characteristic aroma.
Citronellal has insect repellent properties, and research shows high repellent effectiveness against mosquitoes. Research shows that citronellal has strong antifungal qualities. (Wikipedia )
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops like oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pomelo and limes.
The most recent research indicates an origin in the Himalayas. Previous research indicated an origin in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India, Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan province of China, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originated. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times. It has also been cultivated for the production and consumption of citrus juice. (Wikipedia )
Cymbopogon Winterianus Herb Oil
Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus and Cymbopogon winterianus) grow to about 2 m (6.6 ft) and have magenta-colored base stems. These species are used for the production of citronella oil, which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent (especially mosquitoes) in insect sprays and candles, and in aromatherapy. The principal chemical constituents of citronella, geraniol and citronellol, are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants and soaps. Besides oil production, citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes, as a flavoring. (Wikipedia )
Cypress essential oil is derived from trees in the family Cupressaceae, commonly known as Cypress. These trees are rich in essential oil. Cypress essential oil is a tonic for the circulatory system. It is used to heal a number of blood circulation related conditions like hemorrhoids and varicose veins. In aromatherapy, it s used to spiritually ground a person and instill a sense of emotional security. (Oil Health Benefits )
Limonene is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil of citrus fruit peels. The D-isomer, occurring more commonly in nature as the fragrance of oranges, is a flavoring agent in food manufacturing.
As the main fragrance of citrus peels, D-limonene is used in food manufacturing and some medicines, such as a flavoring to mask the bitter taste of alkaloids, and as a fragrance in perfumery, aftershave lotions, bath products, and other personal care products. D-Limonene is also used as botanical insecticide. It is added to cleaning products, such as hand cleansers to give a lemon or orange fragrance and for its ability to dissolve oils. (Wikipedia )
The name EOBBD stands for Botanically and Biochemically Defined Essential Oil. This label means that our essential oils are fully defined both botanically (plant producing organ, exact Latin botanical name, chemotype, country of origin) and chemically (a chromatography is performed for each new batch of essential oil).
This label is a guarantee of the quality of essential oils on:
- the choice of the most favourable biotype,
- the quality of the extraction methods used,
- control of the identity and composition of the essential oil by analysis,
- the guarantee of a 100% pure and natural essential oil.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived. The term essential used here does not mean indispensable as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid which are so called since they are nutritionally required by a given living organism. In contrast to fatty oils, essential oils evaporate completely without leaving a stain (residue) when dabbed onto filter paper.
Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by using steam. Other processes include expression, solvent extraction, sfumatura, absolute oil extraction, resin tapping, wax embedding, and cold pressing. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
Essential oils are often used for aromatherapy, a form of alternative medicine in which healing effects are ascribed to aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy may be useful to induce relaxation, but there is not sufficient evidence that essential oils can effectively treat any condition. Improper use of essential oils may cause harm including allergic reactions and skin irritation, and children may be particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of improper use. (Wikipedia )
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound and is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks.
Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries. (Wikipedia )
Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound that is a colorless liquid. It is a cyclic ether and a monoterpenoid. Eucalyptol is also known by a variety of synonyms: 1,8-cineol, 1,8-cineole, cajeputol, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthane, 1,8-oxido-p-menthane, eucalyptol, eucalyptole, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, cineol, cineole. In 1870, F. S. Cloez identified and ascribed the name eucalyptol to the dominant portion of Eucalyptus globulus oil.
Eucalyptol comprises up to 90 percent of the essential oil of some species of the generic product Eucalyptus oil, hence the common name of the compound. It is also found in camphor laurel, bay leaves, tea tree, sweet basil, wormwood, rosemary, common sage, Cannabis sativa and other aromatic plant foliage. Eucalyptol with a purity from 99.6 to 99.8 percent can be obtained in large quantities by fractional distillation of eucalyptus oil.
Although it can be used internally as a flavoring and medicine ingredient at very low doses, typical of many essential oils (volatile oils), eucalyptol is toxic if ingested at higher than normal doses. (Wikipedia )
Corymbia citriodora is a tall tree, growing to 35 metres (115 ft) in height (but sometimes taller), from temperate and tropical north eastern Australia. It is also known as lemon-scented gum, blue spotted gum, lemon eucalyptus and eucalyptus citriodora.
The essential oil of the lemon-scented gum mainly consists of citronellal (80%), produced largely in Brazil and China. Unrefined oil from the lemon eucalyptus tree is used in perfumery, and a refined form of this oil is used in insect repellents, especially against mosquitoes. The refined oil's citronellal content is turned into cis- and trans- isomers of p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), a process which occurs naturally as the eucalyptus leaves age. This refined oil, which includes related compounds from the essential corymbia citriodora, is known widely by its registered tradename, "Citriodiol", but also by generic names which vary by country or continent: "oil of lemon eucalyptus" or "OLE"(USA); "PMD rich botanic oil" or "PMDRBO"(Europe); "PMD and related oil of lemon eucalyptus compounds" (Canada); Extract of Lemon Eucalyptus (Australia). Pure PMD is synthesized for commercial production from synthetic citronellal. Essential oil refined from the leaves of the tree can contained up to 98% citronella content. The smell of the essential oil can vary, but mostly includes a strong odor compatible alone to citronella oil, with a slight hint of lemon scent.
A study comparing mosquito repellents found that products using the oil of lemon eucalyptus were effective at driving mosquitos away from a human hand. (Wikipedia )
Pelargonium graveolens is an uncommon Pelargonium species native to the Cape Provinces and the Northern Provinces of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. It is in the subgenus Pelargonium along with Pelargonium crispum, Pelargonium tomentosum and Pelargonium capitatum.
A modern analysis listed the presence of over 50 organic compounds in the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens from an Australian source. Analyses of Indian geranium oils indicated a similar phytochemical profile, and showed that the major constituents (in terms of % composition) were citronellol + nerol and geraniol. (Wikipedia )
Glycerol (/ˈɡlɪsərɒl/; also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in all lipids known as triglycerides. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. (Wikipedia )
Lavandula hybrida grosso herb oil
Commercially, the plant is grown mainly for the production of essential oil of lavender. This has antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, and can be used as a natural mosquito repellent. These extracts are also used as fragrances for bath products.
English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) yields an essential oil with sweet overtones, and can be used in balms, salves, perfumes, cosmetics, and topical applications. Lavandin, Lavandula × intermedia (also known as Dutch lavender), yields a similar essential oil, but with higher levels of terpenes including camphor, which add a sharper overtone to the fragrance.
The lavandins Lavandula × intermedia are a class of hybrids of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia. The lavandins are widely cultivated for commercial use, since their flowers tend to be bigger than those of English lavender and the plants tend to be easier to harvest, but lavandin oil is regarded by some to be of a lower quality than that of English lavender, with a perfume less sweet. (Wikipedia )
Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. Two forms are distinguished, lavender flower oil, a colorless oil, insoluble in water, having a density of 0.885 g/mL; and lavender spike oil, a distillate from the herb Lavandula latifolia, having density 0.905 g/mL.
Like all essential oils, it is not a pure compound; it is a complex mixture of phytochemicals, including linalool and linalyl acetate. As of 2011, the biggest lavender oil producer in the world is Bulgaria.
Lavender oil has long been used in the production of perfume.
Oil of spike lavender was used as a solvent in oil painting, mainly before the use of distilled turpentine became common. Lavender oil is used in massage therapy as a way of inducing relaxation through direct skin contact for application. Lavender oil is a common ingredient in mosquito and other insect repellents.
In aromatherapy, lavender oil produces a significant decrease in performance of working memory and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to healthy controls using a CDR System.Self-reported anxiety and stress levels were decreased following aromatherapy sessions. While physiological stress factors vary from person to person, aromatherapy results in a significant decrease in stress and anxiety levels in patients. Lavender oil is a potential treatment for agitated behavior in patients with dementia through application via aromatherapy. (Wikipedia )
Lemon oil has excellent anti-infective, antiseptic, and antibacterial properties especially against streptococci and sporulated bacteria; it is also useful as an antiviral due to its ability to stimulate white blood cells (leukocytes) that protect against infections; it is a digestive, depurative, and carminative tonic. This essence is a good anticoagulant that fluidizes the blood microcirculation. Lemon essence is also known for its detoxifying, cholesterol-lowering and tonic virtues and for its facilitating action in digestion. (Wikipedia )
Linalool refers to two enantiomers of a naturally occurring terpene alcohol found in many flowers and spice plants. These have multiple commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). It has other names such as β-linalool, linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, p-linalool, allo-ocimenol, and 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.
Linalool is used as a scent in 60% to 80% of perfumed hygiene products and cleaning agents including soaps, detergents, shampoos, and lotions. It is also used as a chemical intermediate. One common downstream product of linalool is vitamin E.
In addition, linalool is used by pest professionals as a flea, fruit fly, and cockroach insecticide. It can also be used a method of pest control for codling moths. Linalool creates a synergistic effect with the codling moth's phermone called codlemone, which increases attraction of males.
Linalool is used in some mosquito-repellent products; however, the EPA notes that "a preliminary screen of labels for products containing linalool (as the sole active ingredient) indicates that efficacy data on file with the Agency may not support certain claims to repel mosquitos." (Wikipedia )
mentha piperita oil (Peppermint Oil)
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Wild.) is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint. Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now widely spread and cultivated in many regions of the world. It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.
Peppermint oil is under preliminary research for its potential as a short-term treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, and has supposed uses in traditional medicine for minor ailments. Peppermint oil and leaves have a cooling effect when used topically for muscle pain, nerve pain, relief from itching, or as a fragrance. High oral doses of peppermint oil (500 mg) can cause mucosal irritation and mimic heartburn. As an aroma, peppermint may have memory- and alertness-enhancing properties. (Wikipedia )
Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem (Azadirachta indica), an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics. It is the most important of the commercially available products of neem for organic farming and medicines.
Azadirachtin is the most well known and studied triterpenoid in neem oil. Nimbin is another triterpenoid which has been credited with some of neem oil's properties as an antiseptic, antifungal, antipyretic and antihistamine. (Wikipedia )
Nepeta Cataria Oil
Nepeta cataria, commonly known as catnip, catswort, and catmint, is a species of the genus Nepeta in the family Lamiaceae, native to southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, central Asia, and parts of China. It is widely naturalized in northern Europe, New Zealand, and North America. The common name catmint can also refer to the genus as a whole.
The names catnip and catmint are derived from the intense attraction about two-thirds of cats have towards them (alternative plants exist which attract the other one-third).
The plant terpenoid nepetalactone (below) is the main chemical constituent of the essential oil of Nepeta cataria. Nepetalactone can be extracted from catnip by steam distillation. (Wikipedia )
Nepetalactone is an organic compound, first isolated from the plant catnip (Nepeta cataria), which acts as a cat attractant. Nepetalactone is a bicyclic monoterpenoid, a ten-carbon compound derived from isoprene with two fused rings: a cyclopentane and a lactone. It belongs to the class of iridoids. The structure and the effects of the compound are similar to those of valepotriates. A number of isomers of nepetalactone are known.
Nepetalactone was first reported in 1941 after it was isolated by steam distillation of catnip.
The compound is also present in the wood of tartarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), shavings of which are often used in cat toys.
Nepetalactone has effects on some insects: it repels cockroaches and mosquitos. (Wikipedia )
Melaleuca quinquenervia, commonly known as the broad-leaved paperbark, paper bark tea tree, punk tree or niaouli, is a small- to medium-sized tree of the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. It grows as a spreading tree up to 20 m (70 ft) tall, with its trunk covered by a white, beige and grey thick papery bark. The grey-green leaves are egg-shaped, and cream or white bottlebrush-like flowers appear from late spring to autumn.
The essential oil of Melaleuca quinquenervia is used in a variety of cosmetic products especially in Australia. The oil is reported in herbalism and natural medicine to work as an antiseptic and antibacterial agent, to help with bladder infections, respiratory troubles and catarrh. The oil has a very low (level 0) hazard score on the Cosmetic Safety Database. (Wikipedia )
Orange oil is an essential oil produced by cells within the rind of an orange fruit (Citrus sinensis fruit). In contrast to most essential oils, it is extracted as a by-product of orange juice production by centrifugation, producing a cold-pressed oil. It is composed of mostly (greater than 90%) d-limonene, and is often used in place of pure d-limonene. D-limonene can be extracted from the oil by distillation. (Wikipedia )
Cymbopogon martinii is a species of grass in the genus Cymbopogon (lemongrasses) native to India and Indochina, but widely cultivated in many places for its aromatic oil. It is best known by the common name palmarosa (palm rose) as it smells sweet and rose-like. Other common names include Indian geranium, gingergrass, rosha, and rosha grass.
The essential oil of this plant, which contains the chemical compound geraniol, is valued for its scent and for a number of traditional medicinal and household uses. Palmarosa oil has been shown to be an effective insect repellent when applied to stored grain and beans, an antihelmintic against nematodes, and an antifungal and mosquito repellent.
Palmarosa oil, which has a scent similar to roses, is added to soaps and cosmetics (Wikipedia )
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) is a species of plant from the family Lamiaceae, commonly called the "mint" or "deadnettle" family. The plant grows as a bushy herb, with erect stems reaching around 75 centimetres (2.5 ft) in height and bearing small, pale pink-white flowers. It is native to tropical regions of Asia, and is now extensively cultivated in China, Indonesia, Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Maldives, Malaysia, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, South America and the Caribbean.
Extraction of patchouli's essential oil is by steam distillation of the dried leaves, requiring rupture of its cell walls by steam scalding, light fermentation, or drying. The main chemical component of patchouli oil is patchoulol, a sesquiterpene alcohol.
Leaves may be harvested several times a year and, when dried, may be exported for distillation. Some sources claim a highest quality oil is usually produced from fresh leaves distilled close to where they are harvested; others that boiling the dried leaves and fermenting them for a period of time is best. (Wikipedia )
Pinus Sylvestris Oil
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), while in the south of its range it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude. It is readily identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark. It is the national tree of Scotland.
Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of stumps, needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris. As of 1995, synthetic pine oil was the "biggest single turpentine derivative." Synthetic pine oils accounted for 90% of sales as of 2000.
In alternative medicine, it is said to be used in aromatherapy, as a scent in bath oils or more commonly as a cleaning product, and as a lubricant in small and expensive clockwork instruments. It may also be used varyingly as a disinfectant, sanitizer, mircobicide / microbistat, virucide, insecticide, and a massage oil. It is also used as an effective herbicide where its action is to modify the waxy cuticle of plants, resulting in desiccation.
Pine oil is distinguished from other products from pine, such as turpentine, the low-boiling fraction from the distillation of pine sap, and rosin, the thick tar remaining after turpentine is distilled.
Chemically, pine oil consists mainly of α-terpineol and other cyclic terpene alcohols. It may also contain terpene hydrocarbons, ethers, and esters. The exact composition depends on various factors, such as the variety of pine from which it is produced and the parts of the tree used. (Wikipedia )
The pyrethrins are a class of organic compounds normally derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium that have potent insecticidal activity by targeting the nervous systems of insects. Pyrethrin naturally occurs in chrysanthemum flowers, thus is often considered an organic insecticide, or at least when it is not combined with piperonyl butoxide or other synthetic adjuvants. Their insecticidal and insect-repellent properties have been known and used for thousands of years.
Pyrethrins are gradually replacing organophosphates and organochlorides as the pesticides of choice, since these other compounds have been shown to have significant and persistent toxic effects to humans. Because they are biodegradable compounds, pyrethrins are now widely regarded as being preferable to pyrethroids, which is the name of a group of synthetic analogues of pyrethrin that accumulate in the environment. Pyrethrins are considered to be low-toxicity pesticides from a human health standpoint. (Wikipedia )
Sweet Orange Oil
Sweet Orange Oil (Citrus Aurantium Dulcis Peel Oil) has a sweet, fresh, fruity and tangy scent. It extracted from the peels of both sweet and sour oranges by cold compression. It is used in Perfume & Aromatherapy and commonly used as a flavoring in food and drink; It is also oftenused for its antibacterial, protective and detoxifying properties (NutraWiki )
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats, vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and cocoa butter are examples of fats from seeds. Olive oil, palm oil, and rice bran oil are example of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature (Wikipedia )
E2 Glossary v1.0 | Revised on July 2018
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